Кітва

Матеріал з Київський університет імені Бориса Грінченки
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Кітва, -ви, ж. Якорь. Ум. Кітвиця.

Сучасні словники

Словник української мови. Академічний тлумачний словник (1970—1980)

КІ́ТВА́, кітви, жін., мор. Металевий стрижень з лапами, що зачіплюється за ґрунт і утримує на місці судно, пливучий маяк і т. ін.; якір. Сірий велетень стоїть на двох кітвах і чотирьох стальних тросах (Олесь Донченко, II, 1956, 83).

Словник синонімів

Снимйцуйцуок.PNG

Я́КІР (пристрій для утримання на місці суден, плавучих маяків тощо), КІТВА́, КІТВИ́ЦЯ, КІ́ШКА (невеликий пристрій такого типу). Судно потрапило в сильний шторм і, зірвавшись з якоря, трохи не загинуло в морі (з науково-популярної літератури); Сірий велетень стоїть на двох кітвах і чотирьох стальних тросах (О. Донченко); Впадали у вічі недобудовані курені та землянки, .. бухти кодол і рогульки кітвиць (С. Добровольський); - Сідай, Миколо, в човен та тікай


Етимологія

Кітва, кітвиця походить від прасл. *koty (род. відм. *kotъve), утвореного від *kotъ — «кіт» (пор. «кішка», «кішки»)


Ілюстрації

20111204024909 3.jpg 1200px-Северодвинск (пр. Ленина-ул.Первомайская).JPG Yakor.jpg Anchor PNG8.png

Медіа

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Іноземні словники

English

Oxford dictionary

anchor

Pronunciation

anchor/ˈæŋkər/


Noun

1 A heavy object attached to a rope or chain and used to moor a vessel to the sea bottom, typically one having a metal shank with a ring at one end for the rope and a pair of curved and/or barbed flukes at the other.

‘They ranged from the production of brass and other non-ferrous metals to screws, nuts, bolts, chains and anchors, pins, and jewellery.’

‘Also in the bay is the anchor and chain from the Rhone, only discovered encrusted in coral a few years previously.’

‘At the bow a pair of traditionally shaped anchors rest inside the ship where the deck has collapsed, the anchor winch having fallen sideways and almost standing on one end.’


1.1 A person or thing that provides stability or confidence in an otherwise uncertain situation.

‘the European Community is the economic anchor of the New Europe’

‘Because it could provide an anchor for part of downtown - the old town of York, no less - that really needs some help getting going again.’

‘In the midst of all these changes and uncertainties, the key role of leadership is to provide an anchor that can offer some degree of stability.’


1.2 A store, e.g., a department store, that is the principal tenant of a mall or a shopping center.

‘‘We are delighted to sign up Wilkinson as our anchor tenant for this prestigious development for Bradford,’ he said.’

‘Developers Chartback are holding advanced talks with an unnamed retailer specialising in non-food household goods to secure a main anchor for the Rawson Quarter project.’

‘Poon said that because the company is usually the anchor tenant at large shopping malls, rents are slightly lower than those charged for smaller retail companies.’


2 North American An anchorman or anchorwoman, especially in broadcasting or athletics.

‘he signed off after nineteen years as CBS news anchor’

‘Dowsett is a television news reporter / anchor for KTVL, the CBS station in Medford, Oregon.’

‘Stations can put the e-mail address of reporters, anchors, and producers on air to encourage a dialogue.’


VERB

[WITH OBJECT]

1 Moor (a ship) to the sea bottom with an anchor.

‘the ship was anchored in the lee of the island’

no object, with adverbial of place ‘we anchored in the harbor’

‘The last occurred in 1882 and Cook witnessed the phenomenon in 1769 after anchoring his ship, the Endeavour, in Matavai Bay, Tahiti.’

‘In the evenings, the motor yacht is opportunely anchored for the sublime South Pacific sunsets, best viewed from the broad Sky Deck with a Fiji Bitter in one hand and a camera in the other.’

1.1 Secure firmly in position.

‘the tail is used as a hook with which the fish anchors itself to coral’

‘with cords and pitons they anchored him to the rock’

figurative ‘the first baseman is anchored to the bag’

‘Chief culprit in dental decay is the bacterium Streptococcus mutans, which anchors itself to the tooth and produces lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct.’


1.2 Provide with a firm basis or foundation.

‘it is important that policy be anchored to some acceptable theoretical basis’

‘From early on it became clear to close observers of the EU that the role and rule of law were going to be critical in anchoring EU policy regimes.’

‘This is the position that anchors them morally, as all countries justifiably attempt to protect their ways of life.’

‘You want a man who is firmly anchored in his identity in Christ.’


1.3 North American Act as an anchor for (a television program or sporting event)

‘she anchored a television documentary series in the early 1980s’

‘Amaan has anchored five episodes of Top Drive, the television series on Star World, while Ayaan has already held a painting exhibition in New Delhi.’

‘As we said, Wolf Blitzer is anchoring our election coverage this evening and through tomorrow.’

‘M. Ramesh, who anchors the popular breakfast show Vanakkam Thamizhagam, is a familiar face on the small screen.’


Phrases

at anchor

(of a ship) moored by means of an anchor.

‘Two large Indonesian naval ships lay at anchor off shore.’

‘They simultaneously attacked the airfields and the ships at anchor in the bay.’

‘At the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, dozens of container ships are stuck waiting at anchor or in a berth at any given time because there aren't enough dockworkers to unload them.’


drop anchor

(of a ship) let down the anchor and moor.

‘Fair Isle's residents are surprisingly used to seeing strangers strolling around their land ever since cruise ships first dropped anchor off their shores.’

‘Best of all, the new docking arrangement would eliminate the need for some ships to drop anchor in the harbor, a true improvement, most anyone would agree, over the time-consuming nuisance of having to travel back and forth by tender.’

‘We were about to leave our berth, at the smallish cruise ship pier, when another passenger vessel motored in and dropped anchor right in the path our ship would normally take to move out of the harbor.’


weigh anchor

(of a ship) take up the anchor when ready to start sailing.

‘The ship weighed anchor as planned on April 18 after a visit which seemed all too short, and headed east on a passage of some 5,800 miles to Cairns in Australia.’

‘The next day with good weather the ship weighed anchor to rendezvous with HMAS Sydney.’

‘There was a sharp tug and a few muffled cries of sailors as they docked the ship, weighing anchor and tying ropes the width of Cleo's arm to great posts on the dock wall.’


Origin

Old English ancor, ancra, via Latin from Greek ankura; reinforced in Middle English by Old French ancre. The current form is from anchora, an erroneous Latin spelling. The verb (from Old French ancrer) dates from Middle English.


Deutsch

Deutsches Wörterbuch

Anker

Ạn·ker

Ankers, Anker der Anker SUBST seew.: 

eine Art großer und schwerer Haken an einer langen Leine oderKette, der von einem Schiff aus in den Meeresboden gesenkt wird, um das Schiff an einer bestimmten Position zu halten denAnker (aus)werfen/lichten vor Anker liegen mit dem Anker am Grund befestigt im Wasser liegen vor Anker gehen den Ankerauswerfen

-boje, -kette, -platz, -spill, -tau, -winde, Rettungs-


Ạn•ker

der; -s, -

1. eine Art schwerer Haken, der an einem Seil od. an einer Kette ins Wasser gelassen wird und dann verhindert, dasssich ein Schiff od. Boot im Wasser fortbewegt <den Anker (aus)werfen, hieven, lichten> || K-: Ankerboje, Ankerkette, Ankerplatz, Ankerwinde || -K: Rettungsanker 2. jemand geht (irgendwo) vor Anker jemand wirft an einer bestimmten Stelle den Anker vom Boot (u. geht an Land) 3. meist <ein Boot> liegt vor Anker ein Boot ist mit dem Anker am Grund befestigt || zu 1. ạn•kern (hat) Vi


Anker

(ˈaŋkɐ) 

substantiv männlich Ankers , Anker


Substantiv, m

Worttrennung

An·ker, Plural: An·ker

Сфывфвыфвынимок.PNG

Aussprache

IPA: [ˈaŋkɐ]


Bedeutungen

[1] Eisenhaken an einer langen Kette zum Festlegen schwimmender Fahrzeuge am Fluss- oder Meeresboden

[2] Schraubenbolzen zum Befestigen von Maschinen auf Fundamenten

[3] der sich vor einem Elektromagneten drehende Teil eines Apparates oder einer elektrischen Maschine

[4] ein Bauteil, das eine zugsichere Verbindung (Verankerung) von zwei Bauteilen herstellt

[5] der Doppelhebel in der Uhr, der das Steigrad hemmt

[6] früheres Flüssigkeitsmaß: ½ Eimer oder 36 Liter


Herkunft

mittelhochdeutsch anker von lateinisch ancora → la zu griechisch ἄγκυρα (ánkyra) → grc eigentlich „Gebogenes, Gekrümmtes“ [Quellen fehlen]

[6] von mittellateinisch: anceria → la, ancheria → la [Quellen fehlen]


Gegenwörter

[6] Eimer


Oberbegriffe

[1] Schiffsausrüstung, Gerät

[2] Baumaterial, Material

[3, 5] Maschinenteil

[4] Uhrenteil

[6] Hohlmaß, Maß


Unterbegriffe

[1] Admiralitätsanker, Buganker, Dockanker, Doppelanker, Draggen, Hallanker, Heckanker, Martinanker, Normalanker, Notanker, Patentanker, Pilzanker, Reserveanker, Schirmanker, Stromanker, Suchanker, Trotmannanker, Warpanker

[1] Arm, Armstück, Gelenk, Kreuz, Paßstück, Pflug, Rohring, Schaft, Stock, Transportschäkel

[4] Maueranker, Balkenanker, Ringanker, Zuganker


Beispiele

[1] „Kaum war der Anker herabgelassen, da wriggelten Kapitän Blomsberry und Leutnant Bronsfield an Land und sprangen auf die Kaimauer.“

[1] „Der Anker polterte ins Wasser, und das Schiff stoppte.“

[1] „Die Diligent ließ ihren Anker fallen.“


Charakteristische Wortkombinationen:

[1] vor Anker liegen, vor Anker gehen, Anker werfen, den Anker lichten

[3] Elektromotor, Generator, Bürste, Wicklung

[5] Hemmung, Steigrad, Uhrwerk, Uhr


Wortbildungen

Ankerboje, Ankerhemmung, Ankerkette, Ankerklüse, ankern, Ankermanöver, Ankerpflug, Ankerplatz, Ankerschäkel, Ankerspill, Ankertau, Ankerwinde, verankern


Цікаві факти

У ранньохристиянському мистецтві якір був символом надії. Його зображення можна було зустріти в катакомбному мистецтві, а також на монетах. Джерелом для виникнення такого символу було Послання до євреїв Апостола Павла (Євр. 6: 18-19). Якір - атрибут персоніфікованої Надії, а також святих Климента, папи Римського і Миколи Мірлікійського. Якір, що обвиває дельфін, разом з девізом Festina lente ( «Поспішай повільно» - популярна християнська максима), був поширеною емблемою, що з'являлася на монетах з часів правління імператора Тіта

Див. також

Якорное устройство

Альд Мануций


Джерела та література

https://de.thefreedictionary.com

http://sum.in.ua

https://en.oxforddictionaries.comm

Зовнішні посилання

History of the anchor